Alan, thank you for your question. We identified the "outliers" in Figure 2 based on the boxplots of fish biomass (i.e., the empty dots outside the whiskers). We mentioned the outliers to describe the figure, but we did not excluded them from the analysis because we wanted to include sites with both high predator and lionfish biomass. We did not change the default range in the boxplot () function in R which is 1.5. In R, the default boxplot code for the upper whisker is min(max(x), Q3 + 1.5 IQR) and the lower whisker is max(min(x), Q1 – 1.5 IQR), where IQR = Q3 – Q1, the box length. So the upper whisker is located at the smaller of the maximum x value and Q3 + 1.5 IQR, whereas the lower whisker is located at the larger of the smallest x value and Q1 – 1.5IQR. Everything outside this range may be considered "outliers".