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Hi Chris, Thanks for your interest in our work. I think you are right that a DPM advocate might accommodate our results by saying, “yes, some muscle characteristics act as constraints, so that’s merely another exception to our model.” I (and Mike Lombardo) say the following in response: If you read the quotes in our Supplementary Tables, you’ll discover that Ericsson and other strong DPM advocates explicitly DO NOT make exceptions for anything besides height. They believe, against much evidence, that such constraints do not exist. This is what has made their model so appealing to so many. Once the strong DPM advocates have conceded this, they’d be on their way to conceding that many such constraints on athletic performance likely exist (oxygen uptake, visual acuity, balance). That would be the death knell for the appeal of the DPM (at least its extreme version). It would, however, have the virtue of corresponding with reality! Regards, Rob

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Thanks Rob for your answer and directing me to the quotes - not being overly familiar with the field strong DPM seems no better than a strong man but curiously some do seem averse to biology playing a role. I suspect that biological constraints may be flexible via epigenetic mechanisms. Nice work and I look forward to seeing follow up.

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