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Yes, indeed, research has found that studies with and without publicly data are different. I did a study a few years ago that looked into just this question:

Piwowar HA (2011) Who Shares? Who Doesn't? Factors Associated with Openly Archiving Raw Research Data. PLoS ONE 6(7): e18657. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018657

and found that "In multivariate regression, authors were most likely to share data if they had prior experience sharing or reusing data, if their study was published in an open access journal or a journal with a relatively strong data sharing policy, or if the study was funded by a large number of NIH grants. Authors of studies on cancer and human subjects were least likely to make their datasets available."

Others have also looked at patterns of data sharing and withholding. A few good places to start:

  • Blumenthal D, Campbell EG, Gokhale M, Yucel R, Clarridge B, et al. (2006) Data withholding in genetics and the other life sciences: prevalences and predictors. Acad Med 81: 137–145. doi: 10.1097/00001888-200602000-00008.
  • Campbell EG, Clarridge BR, Gokhale M, Birenbaum L, Hilgartner S, et al. (2002) Data withholding in academic genetics: evidence from a national survey. JAMA 287: 473–480. doi: 10.1001/jama.287.4.473.
  • Hedstrom M (2006) Producing Archive-Ready Datasets: Compliance, Incentives, and Motivation. IASSIST Conference 2006: Presentations.
  • Tenopir C, Allard S, Douglass K, Aydinoglu AU, Wu L, et al. (2011) Data Sharing by Scientists: Practices and Perceptions. PLoS ONE 6(6): e21101. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021101
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