PeerJ Computer Science Preprints: Cryptographyhttps://peerj.com/preprints/index.atom?journal=cs&subject=9400Cryptography articles published in PeerJ Computer Science PreprintsA survey on authentication methods for the Internet of Thingshttps://peerj.com/preprints/264742018-01-312018-01-31Dylan Sey
This survey focuses on authentication methods for the Internet of Things (IoT). There are many different authentication methods that are used in the IT industry but not all of these can be adapted for the IoT. Lightweight and mutual authentication methods will be covered in this paper, alongside two authentication methods that are commonly used in other areas of the industry, rather than the IoT area, which are Kerberos and Group audio-based authentication. The survey will find that Mutual authentication is vital for the IoT and, due to the constraints that are apparent within the IoT devices; the lightweight option is very useful when it comes to dealing with areas like low bandwidth. As a result, there will be gaps that could be further investigated such as the advancement of the IoT technology so that more types of authentication are feasible. A conclusion to this paper is that, by combining different methods of encryption and authentication methods, there are always possibilities to make the proposed protocols more lightweight and secure.
This survey focuses on authentication methods for the Internet of Things (IoT). There are many different authentication methods that are used in the IT industry but not all of these can be adapted for the IoT. Lightweight and mutual authentication methods will be covered in this paper, alongside two authentication methods that are commonly used in other areas of the industry, rather than the IoT area, which are Kerberos and Group audio-based authentication. The survey will find that Mutual authentication is vital for the IoT and, due to the constraints that are apparent within the IoT devices; the lightweight option is very useful when it comes to dealing with areas like low bandwidth. As a result, there will be gaps that could be further investigated such as the advancement of the IoT technology so that more types of authentication are feasible. A conclusion to this paper is that, by combining different methods of encryption and authentication methods, there are always possibilities to make the proposed protocols more lightweight and secure.A review of cryptographic properties of S-boxes with generation and analysis of crypto secure S-boxes.https://peerj.com/preprints/264522018-01-222018-01-22Sankhanil DeyRanjan Ghosh
In modern as well as ancient ciphers of public key cryptography, substitution boxes find a permanent seat. Generation and cryptanalysis of 4-bit as well as 8-bit crypto S-boxes is of utmost importance in modern cryptography. In this paper, a detailed review of cryptographic properties of S-boxes has been illustrated. The generation of crypto S-boxes with 4-bit as well as 8-bit Boolean functions (BFs) and Polynomials over Galois field GF(p q ) has also been of keen interest of this paper. The detailed analysis and comparisonof generated 4-bit and 8-bit S-boxes with 4-bit as well as 8-bit S-boxes of Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Advance Encryption Standard (AES) respectively, has incorporated with example. Detailed analysis of generated S-boxes claims a better result than DES and AES in view of security of crypto S-boxes.
In modern as well as ancient ciphers of public key cryptography, substitution boxes find a permanent seat. Generation and cryptanalysis of 4-bit as well as 8-bit crypto S-boxes is of utmost importance in modern cryptography. In this paper, a detailed review of cryptographic properties of S-boxes has been illustrated. The generation of crypto S-boxes with 4-bit as well as 8-bit Boolean functions (BFs) and Polynomials over Galois field GF(p q ) has also been of keen interest of this paper. The detailed analysis and comparisonof generated 4-bit and 8-bit S-boxes with 4-bit as well as 8-bit S-boxes of Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Advance Encryption Standard (AES) respectively, has incorporated with example. Detailed analysis of generated S-boxes claims a better result than DES and AES in view of security of crypto S-boxes.COZMO - A new lightweight stream cipherhttps://peerj.com/preprints/65712018-01-122018-01-12Rhea BonnerjiSimanta SarkarKrishnendu RarhiAbhishek Bhattacharya
This paper deals with the merger of the two lightweight stream ciphers – A5/1 and Trivium. The idea is to make the key stream generation more secure and to remove the attacks of the individual algorithms. The bits generated by the Trivium cipher (output) will act as the input of the A5/1 cipher. The registers used in the A5/1 cipher will be filled by the output bits of the Trivium cipher. The three registers will then be connected to generate an output which will be our required key stream. we are using Trivium and A5/1 algorithm and making changes to suit our needs.
This paper deals with the merger of the two lightweight stream ciphers – A5/1 and Trivium. The idea is to make the key stream generation more secure and to remove the attacks of the individual algorithms. The bits generated by the Trivium cipher (output) will act as the input of the A5/1 cipher. The registers used in the A5/1 cipher will be filled by the output bits of the Trivium cipher. The three registers will then be connected to generate an output which will be our required key stream. we are using Trivium and A5/1 algorithm and making changes to suit our needs.A review of existing 4-bit crypto S-box cryptanalysis techniques and two new techniques with 4-bit Boolean functions for cryptanalysis of 4-bit crypto S-boxeshttps://peerj.com/preprints/34412017-11-302017-11-30Sankhanil DeyRanjan Ghosh
4-bit Linear Relations play an important role in Cryptanalysis of 4-bit Bijective Crypto S-boxes. 4-bit finite differences also a major part of cryptanalysis of 4-bit substitution boxes. Count of existence of all 4-bit linear relations, for all of 16 input and 16 output 4-bit bit patterns of 4-bit bijective crypto S-boxes said as S-boxes has been reported in Linear Cryptanalysis of 4-bit S-boxes. Count of existing finite differences from each element of output S-boxes to distant output S-boxes have been noted in Differential Cryptanalysis of S-boxes. In this paper a brief review of these cryptanalytic methods for 4-bit S-boxes has been introduced in a very lucid and conceptual manner. Two new Analysis Techniques, one to search for the existing Linear Approximations among the input Boolean Functions (BFs) and output BFs of a particular 4-bit S-Box has also been introduced in this paper. The search is limited to find the existing linear relations or approximations in the contrary to count the number existent linear relations among all 16 4-bit input and output bit patterns within all possible linear approximations. Another is to find number of balanced 4-bit BFs in difference output S-boxes. Better the number of Balanced BFs, Better the security.
4-bit Linear Relations play an important role in Cryptanalysis of 4-bit Bijective Crypto S-boxes. 4-bit finite differences also a major part of cryptanalysis of 4-bit substitution boxes. Count of existence of all 4-bit linear relations, for all of 16 input and 16 output 4-bit bit patterns of 4-bit bijective crypto S-boxes said as S-boxes has been reported in Linear Cryptanalysis of 4-bit S-boxes. Count of existing finite differences from each element of output S-boxes to distant output S-boxes have been noted in Differential Cryptanalysis of S-boxes. In this paper a brief review of these cryptanalytic methods for 4-bit S-boxes has been introduced in a very lucid and conceptual manner. Two new Analysis Techniques, one to search for the existing Linear Approximations among the input Boolean Functions (BFs) and output BFs of a particular 4-bit S-Box has also been introduced in this paper. The search is limited to find the existing linear relations or approximations in the contrary to count the number existent linear relations among all 16 4-bit input and output bit patterns within all possible linear approximations. Another is to find number of balanced 4-bit BFs in difference output S-boxes. Better the number of Balanced BFs, Better the security.4, 8, 32, 64 bit Substitution Box generation using Irreducible or Reducible Polynomials over Galois Field GF(pq)https://peerj.com/preprints/33002017-09-292017-09-29Sankhanil DeyRanjan Ghosh
Substitution Box or S-Box had been generated using 4-bit Boolean Functions (BFs) for Encryption and Decryption Algorithm of Lucifer and Data Encryption Standard (DES) in late sixties and late seventies respectively. The S-Box of Advance Encryption Standard have also been generated using Irreducible Polynomials over Galois field GF(28) adding an additive constant in early twenty first century. In this paper Substitution Boxes have been generated from Irreducible or Reducible Polynomials over Galois field GF(pq). Binary Galois fields have been used to generate Substitution Boxes. Since the Galois Field Number or the Number generated from coefficients of a polynomial over a particular Binary Galois field (2q) is similar to log2q+1 bit BFs. So generation of log2q+1 bit S-Boxes is possible. Now if p = prime or non-prime number then generation of S-Boxes is possible using Galois field GF (pq ), where q = p-1.
Substitution Box or S-Box had been generated using 4-bit Boolean Functions (BFs) for Encryption and Decryption Algorithm of Lucifer and Data Encryption Standard (DES) in late sixties and late seventies respectively. The S-Box of Advance Encryption Standard have also been generated using Irreducible Polynomials over Galois field GF(28) adding an additive constant in early twenty first century. In this paper Substitution Boxes have been generated from Irreducible or Reducible Polynomials over Galois field GF(pq). Binary Galois fields have been used to generate Substitution Boxes. Since the Galois Field Number or the Number generated from coefficients of a polynomial over a particular Binary Galois field (2q) is similar to log2q+1 bit BFs. So generation of log2q+1 bit S-Boxes is possible. Now if p = prime or non-prime number then generation of S-Boxes is possible using Galois field GF (pq ), where q = p-1.Crypto-Archaeology: unearthing design methodology of DES s-boxeshttps://peerj.com/preprints/32852017-09-262017-09-26Sankhanil DeyRanjan Ghosh
US defence sponsored the DES program in 1974 and released it in 1977. It remained as a well-known and well accepted block cipher until 1998. Thirty-two 4-bit DES S-Boxes are grouped in eight each with four and are put in public domain without any mention of their design methodology. S-Boxes, 4-bit, 8-bit or 32-bit, find a permanent seat in all future block ciphers. In this paper, while looking into the design methodology of DES S-Boxes, we find that S-Boxes have 128 balanced and non-linear Boolean Functions, of which 102 used once, while 13 used twice and 92 of 102 satisfy the Boolean Function-level Strict Avalanche Criterion. All the S-Boxes satisfy the Bit Independence Criterion. Their Differential Cryptanalysis exhibits better results than the Linear Cryptanalysis. However, no S-Boxes satisfy the S-Box-level SAC analyses. It seems that the designer emphasized satisfaction of Boolean-Function-level SAC and S-Box-level BIC and DC, not the S-Box-level LC and SAC.
US defence sponsored the DES program in 1974 and released it in 1977. It remained as a well-known and well accepted block cipher until 1998. Thirty-two 4-bit DES S-Boxes are grouped in eight each with four and are put in public domain without any mention of their design methodology. S-Boxes, 4-bit, 8-bit or 32-bit, find a permanent seat in all future block ciphers. In this paper, while looking into the design methodology of DES S-Boxes, we find that S-Boxes have 128 balanced and non-linear Boolean Functions, of which 102 used once, while 13 used twice and 92 of 102 satisfy the Boolean Function-level Strict Avalanche Criterion. All the S-Boxes satisfy the Bit Independence Criterion. Their Differential Cryptanalysis exhibits better results than the Linear Cryptanalysis. However, no S-Boxes satisfy the S-Box-level SAC analyses. It seems that the designer emphasized satisfaction of Boolean-Function-level SAC and S-Box-level BIC and DC, not the S-Box-level LC and SAC.Multiplication and Division over Extended Galois Field GF(p^q): A new Approach to find Monic Irreducible Polynomials over any Galois Field GF(p^q).https://peerj.com/preprints/32592017-09-172017-09-17Sankhanil DeyRanjan Ghosh
Irreducible Polynomials (IPs) have been of utmost importance in generation of substitution boxes in modern cryptographic ciphers. In this paper an algorithm entitled Composite Algorithm using both multiplication and division over Galois fields have been demonstrated to generate all monic IPs over extended Galois Field GF(p^q) for large value of both p and q. A little more efficient Algorithm entitled Multiplication Algorithm and more too Division Algorithm have been illustrated in this Paper with Algorithms to find all Monic IPs over extended Galois Field GF(p^q) for large value of both p and q. Time Complexity Analysis of three algorithms with comparison to Rabin’s Algorithms has also been exonerated in this Research Article.
Irreducible Polynomials (IPs) have been of utmost importance in generation of substitution boxes in modern cryptographic ciphers. In this paper an algorithm entitled Composite Algorithm using both multiplication and division over Galois fields have been demonstrated to generate all monic IPs over extended Galois Field GF(p^q) for large value of both p and q. A little more efficient Algorithm entitled Multiplication Algorithm and more too Division Algorithm have been illustrated in this Paper with Algorithms to find all Monic IPs over extended Galois Field GF(p^q) for large value of both p and q. Time Complexity Analysis of three algorithms with comparison to Rabin’s Algorithms has also been exonerated in this Research Article.Multiplication over Extended Galois Field: A New Approach to Find Monic Irreducible Polynomials over Galois Field GF(p^q).https://peerj.com/preprints/32582017-09-172017-09-17Sankhanil DeyRanjan Ghosh
Searching for Monic Irreducible Polynomials (IPs) over extended Galois Field GF(p^q) for large value of prime moduli p and extension to Galois Field q is a well needed solution in the field of Cryptography. In this paper a new algorithm to obtain Monic IPs over extended Galois Fields GF(p^q) for large value of p and q has been introduced. The algorithm has been based on Multiplication algorithm over Galois Field GF(p^q).Time complexity analysis of the said algorithm has also been executed that ensures the algorithm to be less time consuming.
Searching for Monic Irreducible Polynomials (IPs) over extended Galois Field GF(p^q) for large value of prime moduli p and extension to Galois Field q is a well needed solution in the field of Cryptography. In this paper a new algorithm to obtain Monic IPs over extended Galois Fields GF(p^q) for large value of p and q has been introduced. The algorithm has been based on Multiplication algorithm over Galois Field GF(p^q).Time complexity analysis of the said algorithm has also been executed that ensures the algorithm to be less time consuming.Linear Approximation Analysis: an improved technique for linear cryptanalysis of 4-bit Bijective Crypto S-Boxeshttps://peerj.com/preprints/32492017-09-132017-09-13Sankhanil DeyRanjan Ghosh
4-bit Linear Relations play an important role in Cryptanalysis of 4-bit Bijective S-Boxes. Count of existence of all 4-bit Linear Relations, for all of 16 input and output 4-bit bit patterns of 4-bit Bijective S-Boxes said as S-Boxes has been reported in Linear Cryptanalysis of 4-bit S-Boxes. In this paper a brief review of this cryptanalytic method for 4-bit S-Boxes has been introduced in a very lucid and conceptual manner. A new Analysis to search for the existing Linear Approximations among the input Boolean Functions (BFs) and output BFs of a particular 4-bit S-Box has also been introduced in this paper. The search is limited to find the existing Linear Relations or Approximations in the contrary to count the number existence among all 16 4-bit input and output bit patterns for all possible linear approximations.
4-bit Linear Relations play an important role in Cryptanalysis of 4-bit Bijective S-Boxes. Count of existence of all 4-bit Linear Relations, for all of 16 input and output 4-bit bit patterns of 4-bit Bijective S-Boxes said as S-Boxes has been reported in Linear Cryptanalysis of 4-bit S-Boxes. In this paper a brief review of this cryptanalytic method for 4-bit S-Boxes has been introduced in a very lucid and conceptual manner. A new Analysis to search for the existing Linear Approximations among the input Boolean Functions (BFs) and output BFs of a particular 4-bit S-Box has also been introduced in this paper. The search is limited to find the existing Linear Relations or Approximations in the contrary to count the number existence among all 16 4-bit input and output bit patterns for all possible linear approximations.Extended SAC: A review and new algorithms of differential cryptanalysis of 4-bit s-boxes and strict avalanche criterion of BFs and 4-bit s-boxes again with a new extension to HO-SAC criterionhttps://peerj.com/preprints/32022017-09-122017-09-12Sankhanil DeyRanjan Ghosh
Bitwise-Xor of two 4 bit binary numbers or 4-bit bit patterns entitled 4-bit differences carries information in Cryptography. The Method to Analyze Cryptographic cipher algorithms or 4-bit substitution boxes with 4-bit differences is known as Differential Cryptanalysis. In this paper a brief review of Differential Cryptanalysis of 4-bit bijective Crypto S-Boxes and a new algorithm to analyze them using 4-bit Boolean Functions (BFs) have been introduced. A brief review of Strict Avalanche Criterion (SAC) of 4-bit bijective Crypto S-Boxes and 4-bit BFs and two new algorithms of both the aforesaid criterions have been introduced in this paper. A New algorithm entitled extended Strict Avalanche Criterion (An Extension to Higher Order SAC or HO-SAC) has also been introduced. A new Analysis of Similarity of extended HO-SAC and Differential Cryptanalysis has also been elaborated in this paper.
Bitwise-Xor of two 4 bit binary numbers or 4-bit bit patterns entitled 4-bit differences carries information in Cryptography. The Method to Analyze Cryptographic cipher algorithms or 4-bit substitution boxes with 4-bit differences is known as Differential Cryptanalysis. In this paper a brief review of Differential Cryptanalysis of 4-bit bijective Crypto S-Boxes and a new algorithm to analyze them using 4-bit Boolean Functions (BFs) have been introduced. A brief review of Strict Avalanche Criterion (SAC) of 4-bit bijective Crypto S-Boxes and 4-bit BFs and two new algorithms of both the aforesaid criterions have been introduced in this paper. A New algorithm entitled extended Strict Avalanche Criterion (An Extension to Higher Order SAC or HO-SAC) has also been introduced. A new Analysis of Similarity of extended HO-SAC and Differential Cryptanalysis has also been elaborated in this paper.