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Introduction: The value of tablet computer use in medical education is an area of considerable interest, with preliminary investigations showing that the majority of medical trainees feel that tablet computers added value to the curriculum. This study investigated potential differences in tablet computer use between medical students and resident physicians. Materials & Methods: Data collection for this survey was accomplished with an anonymous online questionnaire shared with the medical students and residents at Southern Illinois University School of Medicine (SIU-SOM) in July and August of 2012. Results: There were 76 medical student responses (26% response rate) and 66 resident/fellow responses to this survey (21% response rate). Residents/fellows were more likely to use tablet computers several times daily than medical students (32% vs 20%, p = 0.035). The most common reported uses were for accessing medical reference applications (46%), e-Books (45%), and board study (32%). Residents were more likely than students to use a tablet computer to access an electronic medical record (41% vs 21%, p = 0.010), review radiology images (27% vs 12%, p = 0.019), and enter patient care orders (26% vs 3%, p < 0.001). Discussion: This study shows a high prevalence and frequency of tablet computer use among physicians in training at this academic medical center. Most residents and students use tablet computers to access medical references, e-books, and to study for board exams. Residents were more likely to use tablet computers to complete clinical tasks. Conclusions: Tablet computer use among medical students and resident physicians was common in this survey. All learners used tablet computers for point of care references and board study. Resident physicians were more likely to use tablet computers to access the EMR, enter patient care orders, and review radiology studies. This difference is likely due to the differing educational and professional demands placed on resident physicians. Further study is needed better understand how tablet computers and other mobile devices may assist in medical education and patient care.