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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Robert S Walker conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Cédric Yvinec performed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Ryan M Ellsworth wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Drew H Bailey analyzed the data, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Human Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

Fieldwork among the Suruí was authorized in Brazil by the Minister of Science and Technology (MCT, portaria n° 129 de 09/03/2005), the National Center for Research (CNPq, processo CMC 052/2004) and by the National Foundation of the Indian (FUNAI, autorisação n° 25/CGEP/05, processo CMC 2905/04).


Ethnographic data were collected by Yvinec in 2005-2007 and 2013 with financial support from the EHESS (Paris), Collège de France, and Fondation Fyssen. Analysis of the data and interpretation of the results were conducted by Walker, Ellsworth, and Bailey with financial support provided by a National Geographic Society Research and Exploration grant (#9165-12). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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