Visitors   Views   Downloads
NOT PEER-REVIEWED. This is a rapid communication before peer review - learn more about preprints.

Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Rodrick Wallace contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper.

Deborah Wallace wrote the paper, provided background and details of the biological processes at different scales and levels of organization.


There was no funding for this project. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Add your feedback

Before adding feedback, consider if it can be asked as a question instead, and if so then use the Question tab. Pointing out typos is fine, but authors are encouraged to accept only substantially helpful feedback.

Some Markdown syntax is allowed: _italic_ **bold** ^superscript^ ~subscript~ %%blockquote%% [link text](link URL)
By posting this you agree to PeerJ's commenting policies