"PeerJ Preprints" is a venue for early communication or feedback before peer review. Data may be preliminary.

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

View peer-reviewed version

Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors have no competing interests to declare.

Author Contributions

Jonathan D Tonkin conceived and designed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Stefan Stoll conceived and designed the experiments, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Sonja C Jähnig reviewed drafts of the paper.

Peter Haase reviewed drafts of the paper.

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding the deposition of related data:

Data is available upon request at the LTER-D data portal:


This study was financed by Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU), Hesse’s Ministry of Environment, and the research funding program LOEWE (Landes-Offensive zur Entwicklung Wissenschaftlich-oekonomischer Exzellenz) of Hesse’s Ministry of Higher Education, Research, and the Arts. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Add your feedback

Before adding feedback, consider if it can be asked as a question instead, and if so then use the Question tab. Pointing out typos is fine, but authors are encouraged to accept only substantially helpful feedback.

Some Markdown syntax is allowed: _italic_ **bold** ^superscript^ ~subscript~ %%blockquote%% [link text](link URL)
By posting this you agree to PeerJ's commenting policies
  Visitors   Views   Downloads