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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Dorothy V Bishop conceived and designed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper.

Sarah McDonald performed the experiments, critique of ms.

David McDonald performed the experiments, critique of ms.

Annie Brookman analyzed the data, wrote the paper.

Human Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

Department of Experimental Psychology Ethics Committee, University of Oxford. Approval by letter. (This committee is now superseded).

Grant Disclosures

The following grant information was disclosed by the authors:

Wellcome Trust grant no. 053335 ⁄ Z ⁄ 98 ⁄ A


This research was supported by a programme grant from the Wellcome Trust (053335 ⁄ Z ⁄ 98 ⁄ A) based at the Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, and by a Wellcome Trust Principal Research Fellowship awarded to Dorothy Bishop. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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