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Additional Information

Competing Interests

All authors are employees at Fiskaaling, Aquacultural Research Station of the Faroese.

Author Contributions

Gunnvør Norðberg conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Asa Johannesen analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Regin Arge contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

As there is no animal experimentation legislation on the Faroe Islands, the local “animal protection act” was adhered to (Løgtingslóg um vernd av dýrum, 2007) throughout this study. A fish veterinarian advised on best practice in relation to stripping to ensure no undue suffering caused by the procedure. Our impact on wild populations was limited, as we used predominately captive bred fish, which were bred for the purpose of producing a domestic lumpfish stock. There were no fish mortalities caused by our study and effort was put into providing optimal care and welfare for all fish involved.


This work was funded by the Faroese fish farmer's association as part of a collaborative project aimed at improving lumpfish breeding practices. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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