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For long-term persistence of species, population structure is important. Traits that hold adaptive advantage such as reproductive timing and stress resilience may differ among locales. Knowledge and consideration of these traits should be integrated into conservation efforts. To test for adaptive differences between Olympia oyster populations a reciprocal transplant experiment was carried out monitoring survival, growth, and reproduction using three established populations of Ostrea lurida within Puget Sound, Washington. Performance differed for each population. Ostrea lurida from Dabob Bay had higher survival at all sites but lower reproductive activity and growth. Oysters from Oyster Bay demonstrated greater proportion of brooding females at a majority of sites with moderate growth and survival. Together these data suggest the existence of O. lurida population structure within Puget Sound and provide information on how broodstock should be selected for restoration purposes.