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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Andrew Nelson conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Audrey Perry performed the experiments.

Christopher J Stewart performed the experiments, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Clare V Lanyon wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

John D Perry conceived and designed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Stephen J Bourke performed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Anthony De Soyza conceived and designed the experiments, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Stephen P Cummings conceived and designed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Human Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

Consultation with County Durham and Tees Valley research ethics committee review board was undertaken. The committee advised that because these samples were collected for routine clinical purposes they could have additional investigational diagnostic tests applied without formal written consent. No additional samples were requested specifically for the study.

Funding

The project was funded by Northumbria University and the Department of Microbiology, Freeman Hospital. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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