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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Matt Burton-Kelly conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Joseph H Hartman conceived and designed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.


Financial assistance to present various aspects of this research was provided by the North Dakota EPSCoR Program (NSF grant #EPS-0447697) through UND Research Development and Compliance for travel to Antwerp, Belgium, and by a grant from the Geological Society of America for travel to Houston, Texas. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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