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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Zalina Zahari conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Soo Choon Tan conceived and designed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Nasir Mohamad reviewed drafts of the paper.

Yeong Yeh Lee analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Rusli Ismail conceived and designed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Human Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC), Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) in Kelantan, Malaysia (Reference number: USMKK/PPP/JEPeM (253.3 [14]) and the Medical Research & Ethics Committee (MREC) at the Ministry of Health (MOH), Malaysia (Reference number: NMRR-13-524-16614)

Funding

This study was supported by the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Grant ‘Research University Cluster (RUC)’ No.1001.PSK.8620014, Project 'Application of Personalised Methadone Therapy Methadone Maintenance Therapy' (PMT for MMT). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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