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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Jonathan S Lefcheck conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables.

J. Emmett Duffy conceived and designed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

Vertebrates were handled according to IACUC standards (protocol 2012-05-11-7960 administered through The College of William & Mary).

Funding

JSL was supported by VIMS Council and VIMS Maury Fellowships. JED and JSL were supported by NSF OCE-1031061 to JED. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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