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Additional Information

Competing Interests

Edmund M. Hart is an employee of the National Ecological Observatory Network.

Author Contributions

Iain R. Caldwell conceived and designed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Edmund M. Hart analyzed the data, reviewed drafts of the paper.


This work was partly funded through participation in a "NESCent-EOL-BHL Research Sprint" held in North Carolina. This included funding for travel expenses for IC and JB. Representatives from the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NESCent), Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) and Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL) attended the "Research Sprint" event and gave helpful feedback on during initial stages of the research including narrowing of our research question and provided assistance in extracting trait data from EOL's TraitBank repository.

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