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Stressors in everyday life can entail, along with emotional and behavioral reactions, a whole series of physiological reactions at different systematic levels (endocrinological, metabolic, immunological). This is also a cause for the development of stress-associated illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, fatigue syndrome, delayed healing of injuries, and pain syndromes. Current research has focused increasing attention on pain syndromes due to the significant economic harm caused by chronic pain patients. Sports, and especially endurance sports, are well-suited for the psychophysiological reduction of stress. Extreme sports, however, can actually induce stress and result in symptoms related to being overstressed. A good balance between exertion and recovery is therefore very important for elite athletes. The presentation gives an overview about this different topics and measurement methods of stress.