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Background: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death in the western world. Regular physical activity is known to be highly beneficial for improving cardiovascular health status. Methods:The current abstract is based on the authors own data and a literature review. The authors own studies have all been accepted by the local ethics committee. In intervention studies the effect of physical training on cardiovascular risk parametres as well as on specific biochemical systems in the cardiovascular system have been studied. Changes in plasma myokine concentrations have been assessed in acute exercise and training interventions in different populations. Results: The conducted studies within the cardiovascular area clearly show that regular physical activity is highly beneficial for vascular function and for reducing blood pressure both in aged individuals and in individuals with life style related disease. An ongoing study at The University of Copenhagen conducted in collaboration with Martin Daumer will show to what extent estrogen loss in connection with menopause in women can be replaced by physical activity and thereby retard the progressive risk for cardiovascular disease commonly seen in women after menopause. Many studies have documented that myokines are elevated in response to exercise but more systematic investigations of how specific myokines are altered in response to various types of intensities and duration of exercise and in different subsets of the population is required to more solidly assess their usefulness as markers of physical health status. Discussion/conclusion: Based on data from our own studies and studies in the literature, physical activity should be recommended for prevention of cardiovascular disease and should be a primary recommendation in treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease to improve overall cardiovascular health. Use of myokines as markers of health status may be useful but selection of the best markers should await further evidence from systematic studies. <!--[endif]-->
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