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Additional Information

Competing Interests

There are no conflicts of interest to declare.

Author Contributions

Izumi Katano conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables.

Hideyuki Doi conceived and designed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables.


This study was partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI (no. 16370012, B18710031), and by a Grant for Applied Ecological Research (2006-04) from the Water Resources Environment Technology Center, Japan. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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