Current state of knowledge on Wolbachia infection among Coleoptera: a systematic review

Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow, Poland
Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republic
DOI
10.7287/peerj.preprints.3412v1
Subject Areas
Ecology, Entomology, Evolutionary Studies, Microbiology
Keywords
: α-proteobacteria, beetles, ecology, endosymbiont, evolution, interactions, intracellular
Copyright
© 2017 Kajtoch et al.
Licence
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. For attribution, the original author(s), title, publication source (PeerJ Preprints) and either DOI or URL of the article must be cited.
Cite this article
Kajtoch L, Kotásková N. 2017. Current state of knowledge on Wolbachia infection among Coleoptera: a systematic review. PeerJ Preprints 5:e3412v1

Abstract

Background. Despite great progress in studies on Wolbachia infection in insects, the knowledge about its relations with beetle species, populations and individuals, and the effects of bacteria on these hosts is still unsatisfactory. In this review we summarize the current state of knowledge about Wolbachia occurrence and interactions with Coleopteran hosts. Methods. An intensive search of the available literature resulted in the selection of 57 publications that describe the relevant details about Wolbachia presence among beetles. These publications were then examined with respect to the distribution and taxonomy of infected hosts and diversity of Wolbachia found in beetles. Sequences of Wolbachia genes (16S rDNA, wsp and ftsZ) were used for the phylogenetic analyses. Results. The collected publications revealed that Wolbachia has been confirmed in 152 beetle species and that the estimated average prevalence of this bacteria across beetle species is 36% and varies greatly across families and genera (0-88% infected members) and is much lower (c. 13%) in geographic studies. The majority of the examined and infected beetles were from Europe and East Asia. The most intensively studied have been two groups of herbivorous beetles: Curculionidae and Chrysomelidae, followed by Hydraenidae and Buprestidae. Coleoptera harbor Wolbachia belonging to three supergroups: F found in only 3 species, and A and B found in similar numbers of beetles (including some doubly infected); however the latter two were most prevalent in different families. 65% of species with precise data were found to be totally infected. Single infections were found in 69% of species and others were doubly- or multiply-infected. Wolbachia caused numerous effects on its beetle hosts, including selective sweep with host mtDNA (found in 4% of species), cytoplasmic incompatibility (detected in c. 7% of beetles) and other effects related to reproduction or development (like male-killing, parthenogenesis reinforcement, possible haplodiploidy induction, and egg development). Phylogenetic reconstructions for Wolbachia genes rejected cospeciation between these bacteria and Coleoptera, with minor exceptions found in some closely related Hydraenidae and Chrysomelidae. In contrast, horizontal transmission of bacteria has been suspected or proven in numerous cases (e.g. among beetles sharing habitats and/or host plants). Discussion. The present knowledge about Wolbachia infection across beetle species and populations is very uneven. Even the basic data about infection status in species and frequency of infected species across genera and families is very superficial, as only c. 0.12% of all beetle species have been tested and/or examined so far. Future studies on Wolbachia in Coleoptera using next-generation sequencing technologies will be important for uncovering Wolbachia diversity and its relations with host evolution and ecology, as well as with other, co-occurring endosymbiotic bacteria.

Author Comment

This is a submission to PeerJ for review.

Supplemental Information

Image of characterization of Wolbachia infection across beetle species and populations based on data in the literature

Supplementary Table 1: Characterization of Wolbachia infection across beetle species and populations based on data in the literature.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.3412v1/supp-1

Image of phylogenetic tree reconstructed based on Wolbachia wsp gene sequences obtained from hosts belonging to various species of Coleoptera

Supplementary Figure 1: Maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree reconstructed based on Wolbachia wsp gene sequences obtained from hosts belonging to various species of Coleoptera (data downloaded from NCBI GenBank https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/ ). Statistical supports (bootstrap values) are presented above the branches (shown only if > 0.50).

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.3412v1/supp-2

Image of phylogenetic tree reconstructed based on Wolbachia 16S rDNA gene sequences obtained from hosts belonging to various species of Coleoptera

Supplementary Figure 2: Maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree reconstructed based on Wolbachia 16S rDNA gene sequences obtained from hosts belonging to various species of Coleoptera (data downloaded from NCBI GenBank https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/ ). Statistical supports (bootstrap values) are presented above the branches (shown only if > 0.50).

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.3412v1/supp-3

Image of phylogenetic tree reconstructed based on Wolbachia ftsZ gene sequences obtained from hosts belonging to various species of Coleoptera

Supplementary Figure 3: Maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree reconstructed based on Wolbachia ftsZ gene sequences obtained from hosts belonging to various species of Coleoptera (data downloaded from NCBI GenBank https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/ ). Statistical supports (bootstrap values) are presented above the branches (shown only if > 0.50).

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.3412v1/supp-4