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Supplemental Information

Video S1: Oviposition in Anchylorhynchus eriospathae

A female of Anchylorhynchus eriospathae laying an egg on a female flower of Butia eriospatha during male anthesis (B. eriospatha) is protandrous. Notice that the female does not drill with the rostrum and instead lays the egg between the bracts that surround the flower.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.339v1/supp-1

Video S2: Cannibalism among first-instar larvae of Anchylorhynchus eriospathae

We removed two first-instar larvae of Anchylorhynchus eriospathae and placed them in Petri dishes for better visualization. Here a larva consumes another that was recently attacked and still moves its mandibles.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.339v1/supp-2

Video S3: Second-instar larva of Anchylorhynchus eriospathae feeding on first-instar larva

The first-instar larva was offered to a second-instar larva immediately after we opened the fruit. This video shows the bigger larva consuming the smaller one after killing it.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.339v1/supp-3

Video S4: Adult feeding in Anchylorhynchus eriospathae

Adults visit inflorescences to feed on pollen, and here we show adults feeding on open male flowers and also using their rostrum to reach pollen in closed flowers.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.339v1/supp-4

Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare no competing interests

Author Contributions

Bruno A S de Medeiros conceived and designed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Sergio A Vanin analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Daniela C Bená conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Grant Disclosures

The following grant information was disclosed by the authors:

FAPESP (2008/55916-1)

Funding

Part of this study was funded by FAPESP, by a Masters fellowship awarded to Bruno A S de Medeiros (2008/55916-1). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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