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Supplemental Information

Natural and experimental light conditions

Experimental light environments were created to mimic natural light conditions experienced by P. pundamilia and P. nyererei at Python Islands, Lake Victoria. Vertical lines indicate the peak sensitivities of the three main Pundamilia photoreceptors: SWS2a (453nm), RH2 (531nm), LWS (565nm) (Carleton et al., 2005) .

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.3298v1/supp-1

Interspecific colour differences

Interspecific differences in coloration, presented as principal components (PC1-PC4), for body and each fin. Error bars represent 95% CI,• indicates P < 0.1, * indicates P < 0.05, **indicates P < 0.01, *** indicates P < 0.001.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.3298v1/supp-2

Increased green coloration in each species group

There was no evidence of species-specific response to the light manipulations, as all three species groups exhibited increased green colour in the deep light condition.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.3298v1/supp-3

Fish coloration (whole fish PC3) during 100 days after switching light conditions (experiment 2)

There was a significant three-way interaction between species, treatment, and date for ‘whole fish’ PC3. However, colour differed little between control (SS/DD) and switched fish (SD/DS). Error bars represent 95% CI.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.3298v1/supp-4

Fish coloration (body PC4) during 100 days after switching light conditions (experiment 2)

There was a significant three-way interaction between species, treatment, and date for ‘body’ PC4. However, change across the 100-day period differed little between control (SS/DD) and treatment fish (SD/DS). Error bars represent 95% CI.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.3298v1/supp-5

Experiment 1 test families

Sample size (males) for each cross, separated by family and by deep (D) and shallow (S) rearing light. Family names are expressed as mother x father, such that ‘PN’ indicates P. pundamilia female x P. nyererei male (F1) and ‘PNPN’ indicates a second generation cross of ‘PN’ female x ‘PN male - F1 and F2 hybrids were pooled in the analyses. Superscripted numbers indicate families with the same mothers; superscripted letters indicate families with the same fathers.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.3298v1/supp-6

Experiment 2 test families

Sample size (males) for each cross, separated by family and treatment group; for example: ‘DS’ indicates a deep-reared fish that was moved to shallow light. Once again, family names are expressed as mother x father and were pooled in the analyses. Superscripted numbers indicate families with the same mothers; superscripted letters indicate families with the same fathers.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.3298v1/supp-7

Colour parameters

Colour space parameters based on those defined by Selz et al. (2016), modified slightly to accommodate our photography set up, and including ‘green’ and ‘violet’ to cover the entire hue range. Black was defined using the YUV colour space.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.3298v1/supp-8

PCA loading matrix (experiment 1)

PCA loading matrices from experiment 1, with the cumulative amount of variance accounted for per PC. All PCs were calculated independently for each section.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.3298v1/supp-9

PCA loading matrix (experiment 2)

PCA loading matrixes from experiment 2, with the cumulative amount of variance accounted for per PC. All PC’s were calculated independently for each section.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.3298v1/supp-10

Continued colour change

Fish continued to change colour throughout the experiment, as evidenced by the significance of ‘date’ in nearly all analyses. t-values and degrees of freedom presented from linear mixed models; • indicates P < 0.1, * indicates P < 0.05, **indicates P < 0.01, *** indicates P < 0.001.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.3298v1/supp-11

Data - raw data & R scripts

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.3298v1/supp-12

Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Daniel S. Wright conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Emma Rietveld performed the experiments, analyzed the data, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Martine E. Maan conceived and designed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the University of Groningen (DEC 6205B; CCD 105002016464).

Field Study Permissions

The following information was supplied relating to field study approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

The Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology (COSTECH) approved field permits for the collection of wild fish (2010-100-NA-2010-53 & 2013-253-NA-2014-177).

Funding

Financial support came from the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF PZ00P3-126340; to MM), the Netherlands Foundation for Scientific Research (NWO VENI 863.09.005; to MM) and the University of Groningen. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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