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Additional Information

Competing Interests

Dr. Black is an Academic Editor for PeerJ.

Author Contributions

Kevin J Black conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Marilyn L. Piccirillo performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Jonathan M. Koller analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Tiffany Hseih performed the experiments, analyzed the data, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Lei Wang performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Mark A. Mintun analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Human Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

This study was approved by the Human Studies Committee of Washington University School of Medicine (IRB, protocol # 03-0347), the WUSM Radioactive Drug Research Committee (protocol # 497F), and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (Investigator IND #69,745 for i.v. levodopa).

Grant Disclosures

The following grant information was disclosed by the authors:

Tourette Syndrome Association research grants: Levodopa-stimulated dopamine release (pilot) and Levodopa-stimulated dopamine release II, and National Institutes of Health (K24 MH087913).

Funding

We were funded by a research grant from the Tourette Syndrome Association, which also provided recruitment assistance, and in part by the National Institutes of Health (K24 MH087913). Reviewers for the Tourette Syndrome Association made helpful suggestions on study design before the study began, but did not influence the collection, analysis or reporting of the data.


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