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Genetic effects on life-history traits in the Glanville fritillary butterfly

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RT @duplouy_anne: .@PeerJPreprints Accepted! The article here in Preprint https://t.co/kFLT4jp4sM #EvolutionaryStudies #SNP #LifeHistory #…
.@PeerJPreprints Accepted! The article here in Preprint https://t.co/kFLT4jp4sM #EvolutionaryStudies #SNP #LifeHistory #PgI #cinxia
New Preprint: "Genetic effects on life-history traits in the Glanville fritillary butterfly" https://t.co/ppooLuUJ3u
First preprint:Environmental effects on genetic associations in Melitaea cinxia @PeerJPreprints https://t.co/lQeKipj3Iu #EvolutionaryStudies
235 days ago
Genetic effects on life-history traits in the Glanville fritillary butterfly https://t.co/Y5RK7y0gmF
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Supplemental Information

The five study populations and their monthly average temperatures

(A) Map of the Baltic Sea region with five populations of the Glanville fritillary: the Uppland coastal region, and Öland, Gotland, Saaremaa and Åland Islands. (B) Average monthly temperatures (full lines) and average monthly maximum and minimum temperatures (dashed) from 1992 to 2001 in Åland (orange), Uppland (purple), Öland (green), Gotland (red) and Saaremaa (blue). The map was created by A. Duplouy using a modified version of the image “Location map of the Baltic Sea” (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Baltic_Sea_location_map.svg , under the licence CC BY-SA 3.0, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) by NordNordWest/Wikipedia. The original image was cropped using Adobe Photoshop CS6 (Version: 13.06x64, http://www.adobe.com/products/photoshop.html).

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2944v1/supp-1

Heatmap for allele count variation between individuals of the Glanville fritillary butterfly from four populations in the Baltic region

Dendograms on the Y-axes show the hierarchical clustering of all samples used in the study, color coded by population of origin (ÅL, UP, ÖL and SA, in red, magenta, yellow and turquoise, respectively). The SNPs appear on the X-axis. (a) The heatmap includes 33 SNPs. The red colour at the top coloured panel highlights the15 SNPs with significant allele frequencies differences between landscape type (northern fragmented, Åland and Uppland, versus southern continuous, Saaremaa and Öland). (b) The heatmap includes only the 15 SNPs with allele frequency differences between landscape types. Only samples collected in 2009 are included in this analysis.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2944v1/supp-2

Larval development-related traits and genotypes of the SNP EU888473.1(Pgi):c.331A>C

(A) The 5th instar larval weight (mg) for the different genotypes of samples collected in 2009. (B) The pupal weight (mg) for the different genotypes of samples collected in 2006. Sample size is given by the number above the bar. Heavy horizontal lines represent median values, boxes give interquartile ranges, whiskers and dots give the minimum and maximum, and outlier values, respectively.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2944v1/supp-3

Values of developmental PC1-2 for the different genotypes of the two SNPs c50_est:735A>G and c50_est:824A>G in the Hemolymph proteinase-5 gene

Sample size for each category is given by the number at the top of the graph. Heavy horizontal lines represent median values, boxes give interquartile ranges, whiskers give minimum and maximum values, dots represent outliers.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2944v1/supp-4

Values of developmental PC1-1 for the different genotypes of the SNP hsp_4:106G>A in the Heat shock protein 70kDa gene

Sample size for each category is given by the number at the top of the graph. Heavy horizontal lines represent median values, boxes give interquartile ranges, whiskers give minimum and maximum values, dots represent outliers.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2944v1/supp-5

Values of male PCM1 for the different genotypes of the SNP c3917_est:386A>C in the Serine proteinase-like protein gene

Sample size for each category is given by the number at the top of the graph. Heavy horizontal lines represent median values, boxes give interquartile ranges, whiskers give minimum and maximum values, dots represent outliers.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2944v1/supp-6

Values of male PCM3 for the different genotypes of a SNP in either the Heat shock protein gene or the Hemolymph proteinase genes

Sample size for each category is given by the number at the top of the graph. Heavy horizontal lines represent median values, boxes give interquartile ranges, whiskers give minimum and maximum values, dots represent outliers.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2944v1/supp-7

Number of male and female individuals genotyped for each population (Åland, Gotland, Öland, Saaremaa, and Uppland)

in the main experiment (2009) and the pilot experiment (2007), and number of individuals included in each PCA1 (larval and pupal traits only), PCAM (male adult traits only) and PCAF (female adult traits only).

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2944v1/supp-8

Pearson correlation matrices for the larval and pupal traits, the adult male traits and the adult females traits

Values are Pearson correlative values (R) and asterisks denote significance at the 0.05 (*), 0.01 (**) and 0.001 (***) levels. The Bonferroni alpha values were corrected for 27, 15 and 91 correlations, respectively.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2944v1/supp-9

Eigen values, cumulative proportion of variance value and component loadings for the four first principal components of the principal component analysis performed on the larval and pupal traits

Highest values from each PCA appear in bold for easier visualization of the results.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2944v1/supp-10

Eigen values, cumulative proportion of variance value and component loadings for the three first principal components of the principal component analysis performed on the male adult traits

Highest values from each PCA appear in bold for easier visualization of the results.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2944v1/supp-11

Eigen values, cumulative proportion of variance value and component loadings for the three first principal components of the principal component analysis performed on the female adult traits

Highest values from each PCA appear in bold for easier visualization of the results

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2944v1/supp-12

Minimum allele frequency (MAF), and minor allele for the 49 SNPs genotyped

Each Pgi locus was genotyped twice. SNPs tagged with “(f)” failed our quality criteria, while SNPs tagged with “(*)” were genotyped for the 2007 pilot study. HWE: Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium; MAF: Minimum Allele Frequency; Gen: Genotyping; Homoz: Homozygote. Aland (AL) and Uppland (UP) populations evolve in northern fragmented environments, while Gotland (GO), Oland (OL) and Saaremaa (SA) populations evolve in southern continuous environments.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2944v1/supp-13

Details of statistical analyses showing significant results, including statistical models used for each trait, as well as the explanatory variables included in the models

Models of inheritance are given within brackets as Dominant, Recessive or Additive. Both main effects and interactions are reported. “NS” stands for non-significant.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2944v1/supp-14

The 15 SNPs showing significant environment effect on allele frequency, with the type of substitution and allele frequencies

The minimum allele frequency for each SNP is shown in bold to ease visualization of the results. Allele frequencies differences between environments were calculated using directed permutation tests (1e+6 random permutations). The p-values give the posterior probability of the hypothesis that there is no difference between the environment types.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2944v1/supp-15

Details of the genotyping quality for the 49 SNPs genotyped. (f): SNPs that failed the quality criteria

Each Pgi locus was genotyped twice. HW: Hardy Weinberg equilibrium; MAF: Minimum Allele Frequency; Gen: Genotyping; Homoz: Homozygote.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2944v1/supp-16

Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Anne Duplouy performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Swee C Wong analyzed the data, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Jukka Corander analyzed the data, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Rainer Lehtonen conceived and designed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Ilkka Hanski conceived and designed the experiments, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

Dryad depository

https://datadryad.org

The accession number will only be available once the paper has been accepted for publication in PeerJ.

Funding

The project was funded by the Academy of Finland grant #250444 and #256453 to IH, and #266021 to AD, as well as by the European Research Council (AdG grant #232826 to IH). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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