Denitrification is an important part of the nitrogen cycle and the key step to removal of nitrogen in surface-flow wetlands. Denitrifying bacteria also function in denitrification. In this study, we explored space-time analysis with high-throughput sequencing to elucidate the relationships between denitrifying bacteria community structures and environmental factors during different seasons. Our results showed that along the flow direction of different processing units, there were dynamic changes in physical and chemical indicators. The bacterial abundance indexes (ACEs) in May, August, and October were 686.8, 686.8, and 996.2, respectively, whereas the Shannon-Weiner indexes were3.718, 4.303, and 4.432, respectively. Along the flow direction, the denitrifying bacterial abundance initially increased and then decreased subsequently during the same months, although diversity tended to increase. The abundance showed similar changes during the different months. Surface flow wetlands mainly contained the following denitrifying bacteria genus: unclassified Bacteria (37.12%), unclassified Proteobacteria (18.16%), Dechloromonas (16.21%), unranked environmental samples (12.51%), unclassified Betaproteobacteria (9.73%), unclassified Rhodocyclaceae (2.14%), and Rhodanobacter (1.51%). During different seasons, the same species processing units showed alternating changes, and during the same season, bacterial community structures were influenced by the second genus proportion in different processing units. ACEs were strongly correlated with temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH. Bacterial diversity was strongly correlated with temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, and oxidation reduction potential. All denitrifying bacterial species were greatly affected by environmental factors, including temperature and pH, and the effects of electrical conductivity and oxidation reduction potential were similar.