_{a}) of a runner is increased due to the need to exert centripetal force. The increased F_{a }presumably requires a greater rate of metabolic energy expenditure than straight running at the same velocity. We propose a model that explains the velocity reduction on curves, compared to straight running, assuming that runners maintain a constant metabolic rate.

_{a}, where F_{a} depends on curve radius and velocity, with an equation for the gross rate of oxygen uptake as a function of velocity. We compared performances between straight courses and courses with different curve radii and geometries.

This is a submission to PeerJ for review.

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

We provide pseudo-code with step-by-step algorithms in the appendix.