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Additional Information

Competing Interests

Authors have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

George Davey Smith authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

Neil M Davies authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

Niki Dimou authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

Matthias Egger authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

Valentina Gallo authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

Robert Golub authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

Julian PT Higgins authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

Claudia Langenberg authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

Elizabeth W Loder authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

J Brent Richards authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

Rebecca C Richmond authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

Veronika W Skrivankova authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

Sonja A Swanson authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

Nicholas J Timpson authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

Anne Tybjaerg-Hansen authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

Tyler J VanderWeele authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

Benjamin AR Woolf authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

James Yarmolinsky authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

Not applicable.

Funding

This work is funded by institutional funds from the Universities of Bristol and Bern and by special project funding (Grant No. 174281) from the Swiss National Science Foundation. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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