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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Thushani Suleka Madhubha Elepathage conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, prepared figures and/or tables, authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

Danling Tang contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft, providing space and funds for the study.

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

1) NASA Earth data



This study is supported by project award to DL Tang: National Natural Sciences Foundation of China (41430968, 41876136), Collaborative Innovation Center for 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road Studies, Guangzhou, China (2015HS05), and the Ph.D. scholarship of T.S.M. Elepathage provided by the Chinese Scholarship Council. This document was produced with the financial support of the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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