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Additional Information

Competing Interests

HAC has accepted conference fees to the Danone Nutricia Hydration for Health conference in 2016, 2017, 2018, and 2019, and has had research funded by the International Chair for Advanced Studies on Hydration (formerly the European Hydration Institute) Graduate Research Grant. LJJ has previously received funding for research from PepsiCo Inc. and the European Hydration Institute. Additionally, LJJ has received honoraria for talks given at conferences from PepsiCo Inc and performed consultancy from Lucozade Ribena Suntory Ltd. This funding/ honoraria/ consultancy has always been paid to LJJ’s institution and not LJJ directly.

Author Contributions

Harriet A Carroll prepared figures and/or tables, authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft, drafted the manuscript; conceived the main ideas.

Lewis J James authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

This is a perspective piece, thus no original data have been used to generate this manuscript


This work was supported by the Economic and Social Research Council (grant ES/J50015X/1). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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