Journals where included papers appeared
(A) Counts of included papers from different journals. (B) Counts of different journal types. General audience journals included Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, PLOS One, and Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. Primarily mathematical and computational journals included American Naturalist, PLOS Computational Biology, and Journal of Theoretical Biology. Specialized journals included Molecular Biology and Evolution and Preventive Veterinary Medicine. Sub-discipline journals included Ecology, Ecological Monographs, Evolution, and Journal of Virology. All journals of the 19 included papers are included.
Reason for exclusion of papers by host species
The reason for exclusion was categorized as no between-host component (gray), no data (orange), no model (blue), or no within-host component (green). All other reasons were included under other (yellow).
Types of focal host species and the modeling type
Types of focal host species used in the within-host and between-host models and the modeling type used to represent the model components. Model types were classified as deterministic (gray), individual-based (orange), statistical (blue) or stochastic (green).
Method used in data fitting at each scale
Three fitting methods were considered: Bayesian inference (gray), least squares (orange), maximum likelihood (blue). All other fitting methods were included under other (green). Different fitting methods could be used in the same papers for different scales.
Supplementary Tables of Question Responses
These tables summarize the answers to each of the screening or evaluation questions.
Table of screening and evaluation questions
Full screening and evaluation questions corresponding to Figure 1B in the main text.
Reference information for included papers
Full bibliographic information for all papers that met the criteria for inclusion in the systematic review.
References for excluded studies
Full bibliographic information for all papers that did not meet the criteria for inclusion in the systematic review, and so were excluded.
Answers to screening questions for excluded papers
Full answers to screening questions for all papers that did not meet the criteria for inclusion in the systematic review.
Answers to screening and evaluation questions for included papers
Full answers to screening and evaluation questions for all papers that met the criteria for inclusion in the systematic review.