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Spiders did not repeatedly gain, but repeatedly lost, foraging webs

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Supplemental Information

Supplemental Figure 1. Ace character state reconstruction of Fernandez et al. 2018 data set

Preferred 'ace' ancestral state reconstruction of web types using Fernandez et al. 2018 coding scheme (Table S1) but including Pararchaea. Optimization correctly shows four, rather than three independent origins of the orb web.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.27341v1/supp-1

Supplemental Figure 2. Optimization of web presence/absence

Optimizing web presence/absence shows that webs are ancestral with ~6 subsequent losses (ARD AICc = 135.7375). Corresponds to manuscript figure 1A but includes taxon names.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.27341v1/supp-2

Supplemental Figure 3. Optimization of Fernandez et al. 2018 data set with non foraging silk-lined burrows and no foraging webs treated as a single character

Optimization of Fernandez et al. 2018 data set with non foraging silk-lined burrows and no foraging webs treated as a single character; spiders are unequivocally primitively webless under this scenario based on an ER model (AICc = 375.491).

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.27341v1/supp-3

Supplemental Figure 4. Ancestral state reconstruction of foraging webs - character states corrected and no foraging webs treated as missing/inapplicable

Preferred ancestral state reconstruction of web types using a corrected character coding scheme (Table S1, modified from Blackledge et al. 2009), the ER model in corHMM, and with webless taxa treated as inapplicable (-); tree modified as ultrametric; AICc = 222.8629. This hypothesis implies a single ancient origin of the orb web; spiders primitively use webs for foraging.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.27341v1/supp-4

Supplemental Figure 5. Ancestral state reconstruction of web types using Fernandez et al. 2018 character uncorrected scoring scheme with no foraging webs scored as missing/inapplicable

An analysis of F&al’s matrix using corHMM with an ER model that includes Pararchaea, only further modified by changing “no foraging web” to missing/inapplicable optimizes irregular ground and aerial sheets as the ancestral web architectures with four independent origins of the orb web.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.27341v1/supp-5

Supplementary Table S1

The table gives the F&al taxa, their April coding for web types, their changes to those codes in June, and the Coddington&Al codes for the same taxa.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.27341v1/supp-6

Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Jonathan A Coddington conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, prepared figures and/or tables, authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

Ingi Agnarsson conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, prepared figures and/or tables, authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

Chris Hamilton conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, prepared figures and/or tables, authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

Jason E Bond conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, prepared figures and/or tables, authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

Raw data uploaded as Supplemental Table 1.

Funding

This work was supported by NSF grant EAR-0228699, DEB-1050187-1050253- 1314749 and NSF IOS 1556165, as well as support from the Global Genome Initiative at the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, and the Smithsonian Institution Barcode Network, and The Evert and Marion Schlinger Foundation. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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