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A new proposal submission policy announced by the U.S. National Science Foundation Biology Directorate mandates that researchers can serve as principal investigator or co-PI on only one proposal per fiscal year to each of the core tracks of the Divisions of Environmental Biology, Integrative Organismal Systems, and Molecular and Cellular Biosciences. The rationale for the restriction is apparently to prevent rapid resubmission of declined proposals; however other NSF programs without deadlines simply prohibit rapid resubmission of proposals and some place no restrictions on submissions. We are deeply concerned that the new restrictions will damage biological research by limiting researchers’ ability to collaborate. In addition, the restrictions will exacerbate pressure on early-career colleagues who may turn to safe, fundable submissions rather than novel and transformative ideas. We write this letter in hopes of raising the alarm about this misguided and harmful new policy.