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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Zhankai Wu conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, prepared figures and/or tables, authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

Xingdong Wang conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools.

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

Data was downloaded from


This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 41606209; The Open Fund from Key Laboratory of Global Change and Marine-Atmospheric Chemistry, No. GCMAC1605; Key Laboratory of Ocean Circulation and Waves, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. KLOCW1805. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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