Distributional variability of bacterial wilt of chili incited by Ralstonia solanacearum in eight agro-ecological zones of Pakistan

Department of Plant Pathology, Islamia University, Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan
Department of Plant Pathology, University of Arid Agriculture Rawalpindi, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, Pakistan
DOI
10.7287/peerj.preprints.26668v1
Subject Areas
Agricultural Science, Plant Science
Keywords
Surveillance, Bacterial wilt, biovar, agro-ecological zones, distributive variations
Copyright
© 2018 Aslam et al.
Licence
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. For attribution, the original author(s), title, publication source (PeerJ Preprints) and either DOI or URL of the article must be cited.
Cite this article
Aslam MN, Mukhtar T. 2018. Distributional variability of bacterial wilt of chili incited by Ralstonia solanacearum in eight agro-ecological zones of Pakistan. PeerJ Preprints 6:e26668v1

Abstract

Background. Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the major constraints in the production of chilies in Pakistan. As the information regarding distribution and prevalence of R. solanacearum is exiguous, the present studies were conducted during 2014-15 to determine the incidence and prevalence of R. solanacearum in the major chili growing areas from different agro-ecological zones of Pakistan. Results. The overall incidence and prevalence of R. solanacearum in the country was found to be 10% and 76% respectively. Of the four provinces, maximum disease incidence of 16.4% was recorded in Sindh province followed by Punjab and Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa showing 11.4% and 7% disease incidences respectively and the minimum incidence of 4.9% was observed in the province of Baluchistan. As regards prevalence, the same pattern was observed. Out of 8 agro-ecological zones the maximum disease incidence of 19.5% was observed in Indus delta followed by Sandy deserts (14.1%) while the minimum disease incidence of 5% was found in Western dry mountains. The disease incidence in other zones ranged between 5.4 and 14.1%. Similar trend was noticed regarding prevalence being the maximum in Indus delta (100%) followed by Southern irrigated plains (90%). Out of 114 R. solanacearum strains, 92 (81%) were identified as Biovar 3 while the remaining 22 (19%) were recognized as Biovar 4. Biovar 3 was recorded from all the four provinces and was found to be predominant in all the provinces while Biovar 4 was found in the Punjab and Sindh provinces only. Similarly, biovar 3 was observed from all the eight agro ecological zones and found to be predominant. On the other hand, biovar 4 was recorded from four agro ecological zones. Conclusions. The study provides first comprehensive report about the distribution of bacterial wilt of chilies in all the agro ecological zones of the country. The disease has been found fairly distributed in the country with varying intensities warranting stringent surveillance and control measures to minimize yield losses.

Author Comment

This is a submission to PeerJ for review.

Supplemental Information

Incidence of bacterial wilt of chilies caused by R. solanacearum in ten sites of district Thatta (Indus Delta)

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.26668v1/supp-1

Incidence of bacterial wilt of chilies caused by R. solanacearum in ten sites of district Badin (Indus Delta)

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.26668v1/supp-2

Incidence of bacterial wilt of chilies caused by R. solanacearum in ten sites of district Mirpur Khas (Southern Irrigated Plain)

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.26668v1/supp-3

Incidence of bacterial wilt of chilies caused by R. solanacearum in ten sites of district Umer kot (Southern Irrigated Plain)

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.26668v1/supp-4

Incidence of bacterial wilt of chilies caused by R. solanacearum in ten sites of district Sanghar (Sandy Deserts)

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.26668v1/supp-5

Incidence of bacterial wilt of chilies caused by R. solanacearum in ten sites of district Bahawalpur (Sandy Deserts)

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.26668v1/supp-6

Incidence of bacterial wilt of chilies caused by R. solanacearum in ten sites of district Multan (Northern Irrigated Plain)

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.26668v1/supp-7

Incidence of bacterial wilt of chilies caused by R. solanacearum in ten sites of district Pak Pattan (Northern Irrigated Plain)

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.26668v1/supp-8

Incidence of bacterial wilt of chilies caused by R. solanacearum in ten sites of district Kasur (Northern Irrigated Plain)

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.26668v1/supp-9

Incidence of bacterial wilt of chilies caused by R. solanacearum in ten sites of district Attock (Barani Areas)

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.26668v1/supp-10

Incidence of bacterial wilt of chilies caused by R. solanacearum in ten sites of district Loralai (Western Dry Mountains)

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.26668v1/supp-11

Incidence of bacterial wilt of chilies caused by R. solanacearum in ten sites of district Karak (Western Dry Mountains)

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.26668v1/supp-12

Incidence of bacterial wilt of chilies caused by R. solanacearum in ten sites of district Barkhan (Suleiman Piedmont)

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.26668v1/supp-13

Incidence of bacterial wilt of chilies caused by R. solanacearum in ten sites of district Nowshera (Wet Mountains)

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.26668v1/supp-14

Individual response of 114 strains of R. solanacearum to different sugars and carbohydrates

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.26668v1/supp-15