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The anatomy of the foveola reinvestigated

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The anatomy of the foveola reinvestigated https://t.co/ZZ1wxJ1fuu
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Supplemental Information

3D model shows the parts of the central Müller cells

A 3D model shows the parts of the central Müller cells of a monkey foveolar between the plateau zone and the outer limiting membrane. The central Muller cells are bigger and brighter in contrast to the other foveolar cells and the peripheral Müller cells. We used the Amira threshold tool to distinguish the central Müller cells from other cells.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.26518v1/supp-1

3D model reconstructed from serial sections from the central foveolar cones of a monkey retina

A 3D model reconstructed from serial sections from the central foveolar cones of a monkey retina is shown. The 3D model of the central foveolar cones shows that outer segments do not run parallel to the incident light as reported earlier but are curved or even coiled and proceed collaterally to the retinal pigment epithelium which here is indicated in red. The outer limiting membrane is marked blue.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.26518v1/supp-2

3D model of an individual Müller cell

An individual Müller cell is shown as a 3D model (Fig. 3b) in the retinal environment of the human foveolar center. Here the Amira Volren view was used and the threshold was adjusted.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.26518v1/supp-3

A stack of the central retinal section from a monkey fovea

A stack of the central retinal section from a monkey fovea is shown with focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopytomographyafter using the Volren tool of Amira software. Müller cells adapt to the shape of the cones including the part containing the nuclei and therefore have a wavy shape. The end of the Müller cells close to the outer limiting membrane is below.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.26518v1/supp-4

A stack of the central retinal section from a monkey fovea

A stack of the central retinal section from a monkey fovea is shown with focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy tomography. One view through the stack from the inner segments of cones to the direction of the vitreous (bottom left) and from the front (bottom right) or from the top (top right). Müller cells appear electron lucent whereas cones are electron opaque. Remarkable is that Müller cells often have the shape of a triangle (bottom left).

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.26518v1/supp-5

Transmission of light under the light microscope at different angles

A human fovea from an isolated retina shows the transmission of light under the light microscope at different angles. The yellow color represents the macula pigment. Remnants of retinal pigment cells cause the black dots. The optical equipment is shown in Fig. 3c. When the light enters the fovea at 0 degrees there is a bright spot in the center of the foveola. This area corresponds exactly to the area with prominent Müller cells. However, when the angle of the light beam is changed to approximately 10 degrees (after 9 seconds), the bright foveolar center becomes dark and the SCE-like drop of light intensity becomes visible. Then the angle is slowly reversed and reaches 0 degrees after 16 seconds. The angles in the video are an approximation.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.26518v1/supp-6

Stack of sections through the human foveolar center

A stack of sections through the human foveolar center is shown. Each line represents an individual section. This stack of sections can be looked through from the top (top left), from the side (top right) or from the front (bottom left). The Müller cells appear as bright cells.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.26518v1/supp-7

Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Alexander V. Tschulakow conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, prepared figures and/or tables, authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

Theo Oltrup performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, prepared figures and/or tables, authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

Thomas Bende analyzed the data, authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

Sebastian Schmelzle contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, prepared figures and/or tables, authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

Ulrich Schraermeyer conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, prepared figures and/or tables, authored or reviewed drafts of the paper, approved the final draft.

Human Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

The human eyes were gifts from the Clinical Anatomy of the University of Tübingen (ethical number for scientific issues 237/2007B01).

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

Monkeys were kept at Covance Laboratories GmbH (Münster, Germany study numbers 0382055, 8260977, 8274007) or SILABE-ADUEIS (Niederhausbergen, France). The Covance Laboratories GmbH test facility is fully accredited by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care (AAALAC). This study was approved by the local Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC), headed by Dr. Jörg Luft and the work was carried out in accordance with the Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki). The monkeys from SILABE-ADUEIS were euthanized due to veterinarian reasons. Since they had not been included in a study before, they do not have a study number.

Funding

The authors received no funding for this work.


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