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Supplemental Information

Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Derek Soto performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables.

Ernesto Weil conceived and designed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Field Study Permissions

The following information was supplied relating to field study approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

Corals were sampled under a General Collection Permit granted by the Puerto Rico Department of Natural Resources (DNER) to the Faculty of the Department of Marine Sciences UPRM.

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

The raw data has been supplied as a supplementary file.


Funding was provided by Grants to Dr. Ernesto Weil from Sea Grant (R-101-1-98), NOAA Coastal Ocean Program (NA17OP2919), and NSF (OCE-1105143 and IOS 1017510). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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