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Additional Information

Competing Interests

Shermin de Silva, U. Sameera Weerathunga and T.V. Pushpakumara work with the Uda Walawe Elephant Research Project. The authors declare that there are no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Shermin de Silva conceived and designed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

U. Sameera Weerathunga performed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, reviewed drafts of the paper.

T. V. Pushpakumara performed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

This research was conducted with the approval of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Colorado State University, protocol no. 11-2816A.

Field Study Permissions

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

Department of Wildlife Conservation, Sri Lanka.

Funding

This work was supported by Trunks & Leaves Inc. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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