1School of Animal Science and Technology; Inner Mongolia Provincial Key Laboratory for Toxicants and Animal Disease, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Tongliao, China
2Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States
3Zunyi Medical College, Department of Pharmacology, Zunyi, China
4Department of Tibetan Medicine, Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining, China
5School of Animal Science and Technology; Inner Mongolia Provincial Key Laboratory for Toxicants and Animal Disease, Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities, Inner Mongolia Provincial Key Laboratory for Toxicants and Animal Disease, Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities, Tongliao, China
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Cite this article
Dong W, Liu J, Wei L, Jingfeng Y, Chernick M, Hinton DE. (2016) Developmental toxicity from exposure to various forms of mercury compounds in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) embryos. PeerJ Preprints4:e2329v1https://doi.org/10.7287/peerj.preprints.2329v1
This study examined developmental toxicity of different mercury compounds, including some used in traditional medicines. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos were exposed to 0.001-10 μM concentrations of MeHg, HgCl2, α-HgS (Zhu Sha), and β-HgS (Zuotai) from stage 10 (6-7 hpf) to 10 days post fertilization (dpf). Of the forms of mercury in this study, the organic form (MeHg) proved the most toxic followed by inorganic mercury (HgCl2), both producing embryo developmental toxicity. Altered phenotypes included pericardial edema with elongated or tube heart, reduction of eye pigmentation, and failure of swim bladder inflation. Both α-HgS and β-HgS were less toxic than MeHg and HgCl2. Total RNA was extracted from survivors 3 days after exposure to MeHg (0.1 μM), HgCl2 (1 μM), α-HgS (10 μM), or β-HgS (10 μM) to examine toxicity-related gene expression. MeHg and HgCl2 markedly induced metallothionein (MT) and heme oxygenase-1 (Ho-1), while α-HgS and β-HgS failed to induce either gene. Chemical forms of mercury compounds proved to be a major determinant in their developmental toxicity.
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Supplemental Table 1: Public health guidelines for mercury in drinking water and fish: Creating context and justification for this study
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