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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Herman Pontzer conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables.

Mary H. Brown performed the experiments, wrote the paper.

Melissa Emery Thompson performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables.

Stephen R. Ross conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper.

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

Hunter College and Lincoln Park Zoo IACUC, and the IACUC committees of all participating zoos and sanctuaries.

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

The raw data or code is included in the manuscript.

Funding

Funding was provided by the US National Science Foundation (BCS-1317170), L.S.B. Leakey Foundation, Wenner-Gren Foundation (Gr. 8670), and Hunter College. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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