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Chiu Y, Lu FJ, Lin J, Nien C, Hsu Y, Liu H.2016. Psychometric properties of the perceived stress scale (PSS): measurement invariance between athletes and non-athletes and construct validity. PeerJ Preprints4:e2268v2https://doi.org/10.7287/peerj.preprints.2268v2
Background: Although Perceived Stress Scale (PSS, Cohen, Kamarack, Mermelstein, 1983) has beenvalidated and widely used in many domains, there is still no validation in sports by comparing athletes and non-athletes and examining related psychometric indices. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the measurement invariance of PSS between athletes and non-athletes, and examine construct validity and reliability in the sports contexts. Methods: Study 1 sampled 359 college student-athletes (males = 233; females = 126) and 242 non-athletes (males=124; females=118) and examined factorial structure, measurement invariance and internal consistency. Study 2 sampled 196 student-athletes (males = 139, females = 57, Mage =19.88 yrs, SD = 1.35) and examined discriminant validity and convergent validity of PSS. Study 3 sampled 37 student-athletes to assess test-retest reliability of PSS. Results: Results found that 2-factor PSS-10 fitted the model the best and had appropriate reliability. Also, there was a measurement invariance between athletes and non-athletes; and PSS positively correlated with athletic burnout and life stress but negatively correlated with coping efficacy provided evidence of discriminant validity and convergent validity. Further, the test-retest reliability for PSS subscales was significant (r=.66 and r=.50). Discussion: It is suggested that 2-factor PSS-10 can be a useful tool in assessing perceived stress either in sports or non-sports settings. We suggest future study may use 2-factor PSS-10 in examining the effects of stress on the athletic injury, burnout, and psychiatry disorders.
The third revision have revised several grammatical errors and inappropriate punctuations. Also, we have added a study #3 to report our test-retest which provides more robust evidence of reliability. Further, we have added several suggestions for the future study.