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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Yi-Hsiang Chiu performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, check mechanical parts of the paper.

Frank Jing-Horng Lu conceived and designed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, pay the necessary fees for the study.

Ju-Han Lin performed the experiments.

Chiao-Lin Nien reviewed drafts of the paper.

Ya-Wen Hsu analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Hong-Yu Liu performed the experiments.

Human Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

Antai Medical Care Cooperation Antai- Tian-Sheng memorial Hospital Institutional Review Board, TSMH IRB No. 15-055-B1

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

The raw data has been supplied as a supplementary file.


This study was partly supported by grants from Ministry of Science and Technology in Taiwan, MOST 104-2410-H-179-009. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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