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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Vivek K. Bajpai conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Jeong-Ho Han contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools.

Irfan A. Rather conceived and designed the experiments, analyzed the data, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Rajib Majumder performed the experiments.

Gyeong-Jun Nam performed the experiments.

Park ChanSeo contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools.

Jeongheui Lim contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools.

Woon Kee Paek contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools.

Yong-Ha Park conceived and designed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

National ethical approval was obtained for fish samples (approval # NSMD-MSIFP-KOR208) on “Animal Care and Use” by the ethical committee of Daejeon National Science Museum, Daejeon, Korea.


This work was supported by National Research Foundation of Korea (2013M3A9A5047052, 2008-2004707 and 2012-0006701). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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