The modulatory effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on endogenous antioxidant systems and inflammatory markers in acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxic mice model
- Subject Areas
- Food Science and Technology, Neuroscience, Toxicology, Pathology, Pharmacology
- Moringa olifera, Acetaminophen nephrotoxicity, serum biochemical markers, antioxidant enzymes, inflammatory cytokines, kidney histology
- © 2016 Karthivashan et al.
- This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaptation in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. For attribution, the original author(s), title, publication source (PeerJ Preprints) and either DOI or URL of the article must be cited.
- Cite this article
- 2016. The modulatory effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on endogenous antioxidant systems and inflammatory markers in acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxic mice model. PeerJ Preprints 4:e2063v1 https://doi.org/10.7287/peerj.preprints.2063v1
N-Acetyl-p-Aminophenol (APAP), aka acetaminophen, is the most commonly used over-the counter analgesic and antipyretic medication. However, its overdose leads to both liver and kidney damage. APAP-induced toxicity is considered as one of the primary causes of acute liver failure; numerous scientific reports have focused majorly on APAP hepatotoxicity. Alternatively, not many works approach APAP nephrotoxicity focusing on both its mechanisms of action and therapeutic exploration. Moringa oleifera (MO) is pervasive in nature and is reported to possess surplus amount of nutrients, and is enriched with several bioactive candidates including trace elements that act as curatives for various clinical conditions. In this study, we evaluated the nephro-protective potential of MO leaf extract against APAP nephrotoxicity in male Balb/c mice. A single-dose acute oral toxicity design was implemented in this study. Group 2, 3, 4 and 5 received a toxic dose of APAP (400 mg/kg of bw, i.p) and after an hour, these groups were administered with saline (10 mL/kg), silymarin - positive control (100 mg/kg of bw, i.p), MO leaf extract (100 mg/kg of bw, i.p), and MO leaf extract (200 mg/kg bw, i.p) respectively. Group 1 was administered saline (10 mL/kg) during both the sessions. APAP-treated mice exhibited a significant elevation of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, sodium, potassium and chloride levels. A remarkable depletion of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT and GSH-Px with elevated MDA levels has been observed in APAP treated kidney tissues. They also exhibited a significant raise in pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) and decreased anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine level in the kidney tissues. Disorganized glomerulus and dilated tubules with inflammatory cell infiltration was clearly observed in the histology of APAP treated mice kidneys. All these pathological changes were reversed in a dose dependent manner after MO leaf extract treatment. Therefore, MO leaf extract has demonstrated some therapeutic effectiveness against APAP-induced nephrotoxicity through enhancement of endogenous antioxidant system and modulatory effect on specific inflammatory cytokines in kidney tissues.
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