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Supplemental Information

Table S1: Linear model of bacterial diversity ~ habitat diversity × season

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2036v1/supp-1

Table S2: Linear model of microalgal diversity ~ habitat diversity × season

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2036v1/supp-2

Table S3: Linear model of multifunctionality ~ habitat diversity × season

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2036v1/supp-3

Table S4: Linear model of multifunctionality ~ bacterial diversity × season

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2036v1/supp-4

Table S5: Linear model of multifunctionality ~ algal diversity × season

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2036v1/supp-5

Table S6: Standardized total, direct and indirect effects for the group spring

‘Total effects’ are the sum of all direct and indirect effects. ‘Direct effects’ are the direct effects of one variable to another variable and ‘Indirect effects’ are sum of all products affecting one variable (e.g., the indirect effect of Habitat diversity on Multifunctionality is the product of the path between Habitat diversity à Bacterial diversity, and Bacterial diversity à Multifunctionality).

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2036v1/supp-6

Table S7: Standardized total, direct and indirect effects for the group summer

‘Total effects’ are the sum of all direct and indirect effects. ‘Direct effects’ are the direct effects of one variable to another variable and ‘Indirect effects’ are sum of all products affecting one variable (e.g., the indirect effect of Habitat diversity on Multifunctionality is the product of the path between Habitat diversity à Bacterial diversity, and Bacterial diversity à Multifunctionality).

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2036v1/supp-7

Table S8: Standardized total, direct and indirect effects for the group autumn

‘Total effects’ are the sum of all direct and indirect effects. ‘Direct effects’ are the direct effects of one variable to another variable and ‘Indirect effects’ are sum of all products affecting one variable (e.g., the indirect effect of Habitat diversity on Multifunctionality is the product of the path between Habitat diversity à Bacterial diversity, and Bacterial diversity à Multifunctionality).

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2036v1/supp-8

Table S9: Linear model of GPP ~ habitat diversity × season

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2036v1/supp-9

Table S10: Linear model of N2 fixation ~ habitat diversity × season

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2036v1/supp-10

Table S11: Linear model of DIN uptake ~ habitat diversity × season

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2036v1/supp-11

Table S12: Linear model of Denitrification ~ habitat diversity × season

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2036v1/supp-12

Table S13: <!--[if !supportAnnotations]--> <!--[endif]--> Environmental data for each habitat during summer

PW DIN, total concentration of NH4+, NO3-+NO2- in the pore water (μM). Percent dry weight of total nitrogen (N tot) and organic carbon (C org) in the sediment. Porosity, water content in sediment (%). Density, density of sediment. Chl b, concentration of sediment chlorophyll b (mg m-2). Echi, concentration of sediment echinenone (mg m-2). Fuco, concentration of sediment fucoxanthin (mg m-2). Ruppia, dry weight of Ruppia maritima (mg m-2).

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2036v1/supp-13

Table S14: Environmental data for each habitat during spring

PW DIN, total concentration of NH4+, NO3-+NO2- in the pore water (μM). Percent dry weight of total nitrogen (N tot) and organic carbon (C org) in the sediment. Porosity, water content in sediment (%). Density, density of sediment. Chl b, concentration of sediment chlorophyll b (mg m-2). Echi, concentration of sediment echinenone (mg m-2). Fuco, concentration of sediment fucoxanthin (mg m-2). Ruppia, dry weight of Ruppia maritima (mg m-2).

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2036v1/supp-14

Table S15: Environmental data for each habitat during autumn

PW DIN, total concentration of NH4+, NO3-+NO2- in the pore water (μM). Percent dry weight of total nitrogen (N tot) and organic carbon (C org) in the sediment. Porosity, water content in sediment (%). Density, density of sediment. Chl b, concentration of sediment chlorophyll b (mg m-2). Echi, concentration of sediment echinenone (mg m-2). Fuco, concentration of sediment fucoxanthin (mg m-2). Ruppia, dry weight of Ruppia maritima (mg m-2).

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2036v1/supp-15

Figure 1S

Pictures describing the experimental design used to manipulate the diversity of habitats within landscapes. The habitats ‘Sandy beach’, ‘Silty mud’, ‘Cyanobacterial mats’ and ‘Ruppia meadows’ were collected from shallow-water sediment ecosystems by sampling intact cores in the field and then arrange them randomly into landscapes to form a diversity gradient including one, two, three, and four habitat types. Each replicate landscape was placed in a greenhouse with continuous water flow of coastal surface water.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2036v1/supp-16

Figure 2S

Bacterial diversity for each individual habitat (habitat diversity = 1; ‘Sandy beach’, ‘Silty mud’, ‘Cyanobacterial mats’ and ‘Ruppia sp. meadows’) and for each habitat diversity combination, i.e. habitat diversity 2 – 4 expressed as effective phylogenetic diversity of order q = 1 during spring, summer and autumn, n = 84.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2036v1/supp-17

Figure 3S

Benthic microalgal diversity (effective number of taxa) for each individual habitat (habitat diversity = 1, ‘Sandy beach’, ‘Silty mud’, ‘Cyanobacterial mats’ and ‘Ruppia sp. meadows’) and for each habitat diversity combination, i.e. habitat diversity 2 – 4 during spring, summer and autumn, n = 42.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2036v1/supp-18

Figure 4S

Linear function of relationships between habitat diversity and benthic microalgal diversity (effective number of taxa) during spring, summer and autumn. Shaded areas indicate ± 95% confidence interval, n = 42.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2036v1/supp-19

Figure 5S

Linear models of individual functions used to calculate multifunctionality against habitat diversity during spring, summer and autumn. A) Gross Primary Production (mmol O2 m-2 day-1), B) nitrogen fixation (mmol m-2 day-1), C) DIN, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate + nitrite) (mmol m-2 day-1), and D) denitrification (nmol N g wet sed-1 h-1). Shaded areas indicate ±95% confidence interval, n = 84.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2036v1/supp-20

Figure 6S

The net habitat diversity effect on landscape multifunctionality in the treatments with all four habitat types. ‘Expected’ is the expected multifunctionality in the treatment based on each of the single habitats and ‘observed’ is the observed multifunctionality. The points are slightly spread on the x-axis (grouped by season) and jittered (within season) for clarity. The triangles represent group means.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2036v1/supp-21

Figure 7S

Light intensity (PAR; photosynthetically active radiation) at the research station where the experiments was performed and recorded surface water temperatures in the nearby shallow bay where water was collected for the flow-through system and. The timing of each performed experiment is indicated as ‘spring’, ‘summer’ and ‘autumn’.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2036v1/supp-22

Figure 8S

Concentrations of inorganic nutrients (ammonium, nitrate+nitrite and phosphate) in the inflowing water supporting the flow-through system during spring, summer and autumn, n = 168.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2036v1/supp-23

Figure 9S

Percent dry weight of organic content in the sediment habitats. A) total nitrogen and B) organic carbon in the sediment of the four habitat types ‘Sandy beach’, ‘Silty mud’, ‘Cyanobacterial mats’ and ‘Ruppia sp. meadows’ during spring, summer and autumn, n = 48.

DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.2036v1/supp-24

Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Christian Alsterberg conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Fabian Roger performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Kristina Sundbäck conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Jaanis Juhanson performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Stefan Hulth conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Sara Hallin conceived and designed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Lars Gamfeldt conceived and designed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Funding

This work was financially supported by Forskningsrådet för miljö, areella näring och samhällsbyggande (Formas) grant 2012-695. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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