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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Michelle L Bloomquist performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables.

John W Hartmann performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables.

Richard M Engeman conceived and designed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper, statistical Analysis.

Travis G Guerrant wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Scott F Beckerman conceived and designed the experiments, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

USDA APHIS Wildlife Services Animal care and use committee.

Field Study Permissions

The following information was supplied relating to field study approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

US. Fish and Wildlife Service - Wildlife Depredation Permit.

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

The raw data was not supplied with this abstract.

Funding

Funding was provided by the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative and The Chicago Park District. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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