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Additional Information

Competing Interests

No competing interests exist.

Author Contributions

Akram A Da'dara conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper.

Rita Bhardwaj conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data.

Yasser MB Ali performed the experiments.

Patrick Skelly conceived and designed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper.

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

Tufts University IACUC

Protocol G2012-150

Grant Disclosures

The following grant information was disclosed by the authors:

Grant number AI-056273 from the NIH-NIAID

Funding

This work was supported by grant AI-056273 from the NIH-NIAID and by a scholarship from the United States Agency for International Development/Egyptian Ministry of Higher Education (Mission Dept.). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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