Visitors   Views   Downloads
NOT PEER-REVIEWED
"PeerJ Preprints" is a venue for early communication or feedback before peer review. Data may be preliminary.

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

View peer-reviewed version

Additional Information

Competing Interests

Filippo Menczer is an Academic Editor for PeerJ Computer Science.

Author Contributions

Clayton A Davis wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, performed the computation work, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Giovanni Luca Ciampaglia wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, performed the computation work, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Luca Maria Aiello performed the computation work, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Keychul Chung performed the computation work, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Michael D Conover performed the computation work, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Emilio Ferrara performed the computation work, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Alessandro Flammini reviewed drafts of the paper.

Geoffrey C Fox reviewed drafts of the paper.

Xiaoming Gao performed the computation work, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Bruno Gonçalves performed the computation work, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Przemyslaw A Grabowicz performed the computation work, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Kibeom Hong performed the computation work, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Pik-Mai Hui performed the computation work, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Scott McCaulay performed the computation work, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Karissa McKelvey performed the computation work, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Mark R Meiss performed the computation work, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Snehal Patil performed the computation work, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Chathuri Peli Kankanamalage performed the computation work, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Valentin Pentchev reviewed drafts of the paper.

Judy Qiu reviewed drafts of the paper.

Jacob Ratkiewicz performed the computation work, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Alex Rudnick performed the computation work, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Benjamin Serrette prepared figures and/or tables, performed the computation work, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Prashant Shiralkar performed the computation work, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Onur Varol performed the computation work, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Lilian Weng performed the computation work, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Tak-Lon Wu performed the computation work, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Andrew J Younge performed the computation work, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Filippo Menczer wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

This study was deemed exempt from review by the Indiana University IRB office under Protocol #1102004860.

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

Data from the OSoMe are available through an API and through interactive apps. For more information please visit: http://osome.iuni.iu.edu/

It is important to note that, in compliance with the Twitter terms of service [1], OSoMe does not provide access to the content of tweets. However, researchers can obtain numeric object identifiers in response to their queries. This information can then be used to retrieve tweet content via the official Twitter API.

[1] https://dev.twitter.com/overview/terms/policy

Funding

This work was supported in part by NSF (grants CCF-1101743 and OCI-1149432), the J.S. McDonnell Foundation (grant 220020274), the Swiss National Science Foundation (fellowship PBTIP2_142353), the Lilly Endowment, the Center for Complex Networks and Systems Research (CNetS), the Digital Science Center (DSC), and the Indiana University Network Science Institute (IUNI). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the funding agencies. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


Add your feedback

Before adding feedback, consider if it can be asked as a question instead, and if so then use the Question tab. Pointing out typos is fine, but authors are encouraged to accept only substantially helpful feedback.

Some Markdown syntax is allowed: _italic_ **bold** ^superscript^ ~subscript~ %%blockquote%% [link text](link URL)
 
By posting this you agree to PeerJ's commenting policies