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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Shelley Marshall performed the experiments, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Gerald Kuzyk conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, wrote the paper, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Doug Heard conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Chris Procter performed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Michael Gillingham conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Helen Schnwantje performed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Conrad Thiessen performed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Becky Cadsand performed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Michael Klaczek performed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Adrian Batho performed the experiments.

Cait Nelson performed the experiments.

Heidi Schindler performed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Dexter Hodder performed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

BC Ministry of Forests Lands and Natural Resource Operations

Funding

Funding was provided by BC Government Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations; Habitat Conservation Trust Fund, John Prince Research Forest. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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