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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Doug MacNearney conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Karine E Pigeon conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Jerome Cranston contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools.

Gordon Stenhouse conceived and designed the experiments.

Laura Finnegan conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

The Government of Alberta approved this work.

Field Study Permissions

The following information was supplied relating to field study approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

The Government of Alberta approved this work.

Funding

Funding for this research was provided by FRIAA, Alberta Upstream Petroleum Research, BC OGRIS, Environment Canada, DMI, Manning Diversified Forest Products, Foothills Landscape Management Forum, Jupiter Resources, Paramount Resources, Talisman Energy, Canadian Natural Resources, Miller-Western, Tolko Industries, and Vanderwell Contractors. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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