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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Jeffery R Werner conceived and designed the experiments, analyzed the data, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables.

Elizabeth A Gillis performed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Rudy Boonstra performed the experiments, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Charles J Krebs conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

This research was approved by the University of British

Columbia Animal Care Committee in accordance with the

guidelines of the Canadian Council on Animal Care.

Field Study Permissions

The following information was supplied relating to field study approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

Yukon Territorial Government Scientist and Explorers Permit (renewed yearly for all 25 consecutive years)

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

All data used in this paper are archived and freely available at the website http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/∼krebs/kluane.html, and can be downloaded in an Excel file at http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/∼krebs/downloads/monitor.xlsx

Funding

Funding was provided from the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Yukon Fish and Wildlife Enhancement Trust, the Northern Science Training Program of Environment Canada (administered by the University of British Columbia), The W. Garfield Weston Foundation Fellowship Program (a program of the Wildlife Conservation Society Canada funded by The W. Garfield Weston Foundation), the Northern Research Endowment fund (administered by Yukon College), a grant-in-aid from the Arctic Institute of North America and logistical support from Yukon Territorial government. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.


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