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Additional Information

Competing Interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author Contributions

Africa de las Heras conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments, analyzed the data, wrote the paper, prepared figures and/or tables.

Dan Sperber conceived and designed the experiments.

Josep Call conceived and designed the experiments, analyzed the data, reviewed drafts of the paper.

Animal Ethics

The following information was supplied relating to ethical approvals (i.e., approving body and any reference numbers):

We obtained approval of the local ethics committee of the MPI-EVA and the Leipzig Zoo and the ethics committee of the School of Psychology and Neuroscience of the University of St Andrews.

Animal husbandry and research comply with the ‘‘EAZA Minimum Standards for the Accommodation and Care of Animals in Zoos and Aquaria’’, the ‘‘WAZA Ethical Guidelines for the Conduct of Research on Animals by Zoos and Aquariums’’ and the ‘‘Guidelines for the Treatment of Animals in Behavioral Research and Teaching’’ of the Association for the Study of Animal Behavior (ASAB).

Data Deposition

The following information was supplied regarding data availability:

This is an abstract which has been accepted for the "Chimpanzees in Context" symposium.


This work was supported by an ERC-Synergy grant. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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